Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Q.1 Compare and contrast NDA and BLA. Why are there different applications for small and large molecules? A small molecule drug approval required a New Drug Application (NDA) because it covered under Federal Food Drug and cosmetic Act Section 505 while large molecule drug required a Biologics License Application (BLA) because it covered under Public Health Service Act Section 351. Compared with conventional small-molecule drugs, products derived from a biological source are structurally complex, large molecules and involved in different manufacturing processes that require tight control to ensure their safety, purity, quality, and efficacy. Because of these differences in respect of the product characteristics and manufacturing process,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The regulations regarding BLAs for therapeutic biological products included in 21 CFR parts 600, 601 and 610. Form 356h is a harmonized form, and a sponsor can use it for NDA, BLA and Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA). Drugs are nominated as orphan drugs for those diseases with patient population of less than 200,000 in the US. The FDA has given special provision for the development, marketing approval and marketing of orphan drugs under 21 CFR Part 316.The Orphan Drug Act provides incentives to organizations to research and test drugs because it have limited commercial returns due to the small size of the patient group. Companies are taking commercial risks so FDA is providing assistance in the forms of NDA fee waivers, tax credits for clinical research, and grants for the research. The FDA also provides market monopoly to the organization to market the drug for seven years. The office also works on rare disease issues with the medical and research communities, professional organizations, academia, governmental agencies, industry, and rare disease patient groups. The Orphan Grants Program from FDA has been used to bring more than 45 products in the market. 21CFR 316 gives FDA right to revoke orp han drug designation if they found that untrue statement regarding material fact or drug is not eligible as an orphan drug and withdraw marketing monopoly.
Friday, May 15, 2020
Through the novel Frankenstein, Mary Shelley delves into ethical and deontological issues concerning the sciences and scientific research Ã¢â¬â themes that are actually still current in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s day. Mary Shelley exalts the human person, questioning many truths of the world and what it means to be human, along with all the implications that come with it. The novel also explores the theme of nature versus nurture, keeping in mind the knowledge and concepts of the time period it was written in, while continuing to relate to ideas of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s day and age. In the novel, paralleling with the society at the time, prejudice exists, people are judged, those deemed different are badly treated by humanity. And, over the years people increasingly begun to realize that the environment in which individuals grow up in and all the experiences during their life shape them into the person they are. And, depending on those factors, different people will have different character traits a nd temperaments, this isnÃ¢â¬â¢t any different in ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s novel. Frankenstein s monster was taught to be malevolent through Victor s abandonment and further negligence as well as society s exclusion rather than innately being that way, since he didn t have any guidance in his pursuit of knowledge. Victor Frankenstein, driven by his curiosity and desire for scientific glory, discovers the secret of life after many years of study in seclusion. Upon his discovery, he creates a being out of body parts he has carefullyShow MoreRelatedMary Shelley s Life And Life1153 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMary Shelley, through all of her struggles, still manages to completely entrap the entire imagination, and emotion of each individual member of her audience. Shelley, maiden name Godwin, was born on the 30 of August, 1797. Shortly after giving birth to to her newborn child, Mary Wollstonecraft died of an illness. September 10, 1797; Mary Wollstonecraft, mother to Mary Godwin, passed away, thus leaving her children motherless. Both of ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s parents were well known as intellectual thinkers, aheadRead MoreAnalysis Of Mary Shelley s Frankenstein 1527 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesShelley s narrative is seen to symbolize romantic fears, offering a tale of certain demise, one that gives technology ne gative connotations in the form of the creature whom is represented as an outcast of society. To emphasise this, the sublime settings in the text, provide a space where the marginalised can be heard, however, for in contrast to the power of beauty which works to contain and maintain social distinctions, the sublime in Frankenstein opens the way for the excluded to challenge theRead MoreAnalysis Of Mary Shelley s Frankenstein1744 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesintoxicates both the beholder and the beheld. Humans are raised into a society that instills certain standards of elegance and beauty. In Mary ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Frankenstein, the woes and misery of the monster is brought to the readersÃ¢â¬â¢ attention as humans constantly berate and abuse the creature for itÃ¢â¬â¢s hideous body. Mary ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Frankenstein discusses the advantages and the detriments that an alluring versus unappealing body provides a person, and how that person is affected due to the pressures and assumptionsR ead MoreMary Shelley s Frankenstein As A Gothic Novel1042 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Mary shelley uses Spooky castles, mystery, and suspense: these are all elements of a Gothic novel. Mary ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Frankenstein was written in the early 19th century, the novel certainly contains many components of a Gothic novel. Shelley uses various literary devices to support the element of a supernatural event, dreams, emotions, and metonymy of gloom, which classify Frankenstein as a Gothic novel. Immediately after FrankensteinÃ¢â¬â¢s supernatural creation, VictorÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreThe Concepts of Knowledge and Happiness in Mary Shelleys Frankenstein1011 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesnot by my precepts, at least by my example, how dangerous is the acquirement of knowledge, and how much happier that man is who believes his native town to be the world, than he who aspires to become greater than his nature will allow (Shelley 60). In Mary Shelley s Frankenstein, she expresses her beliefs regarding the danger of pursuing happiness through the attainment of knowledge, because true happiness is found in the emotional connections established between people. The pursuit of knowledgeRead MoreAnalysis Of Mary Shelley s Frankenstein 1184 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThroughout Frankenstein, Mary Shelley uses a Ã¢â¬Ëframed narrative using three different characters who tell their story at different times of the novel. In the beginning of the story, the audience receives Captain Walto n s point of view, who primarily writes letters to his sister Margaret Saville, in England. Secondly, the audience comes hand in hand with Victor Frankenstein s point of view and within his narrative, they receive the indomitable Creature s point of view. The major theme portrayedRead MoreFrankenstein: Allusions1112 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesis a reference to a well-known person, place, event, or literary work. These allusions are typically used by an author who intends to make a powerful point without the need to explain it. Mary Shelley s Frankenstein provides many examples of allusion s. She connects the story of Ã¢â¬Å"PrometheusÃ¢â¬ , Coleridge s Rime of the Ancient Mariner, and Milton s Paradise Lost to her own novel to convey the critical points of the meaning behind the story. Not only does Mary Shelley make use of the mythological symbolismRead MoreMary Shelley s Frankenstein And The Human Nature1029 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThere are many places in Mary ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s book Fr ankenstein that refer to the human nature; different components of it is represented through almost every character. For instance, Elizabeth possibly epitomizes the benevolence, compassion, and empathy of humanity. Other characters symbolize aspects as well; Victor is curiosity and obsession, Henry is adventure and creativity, Caroline is selflessness and love, etc. My personal favorite, however, is the creature that was created by Victor FrankensteinRead MoreAnalysis Of Mary Shelley s Frankenstein 1117 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Intro One rainy night in Austria the idea of the to be famous novel, Frankenstein came to Mary shelly in a dream. The idea to write a ghost story was not her own but Lord Byrons , a friend who was also summer sojourning with Mary and her husband Percy Shelley. Mary Shelley was 16 at the time and The story of Frankenstein was then published two years later in 1818. The tale takes place somewhere in the 18th century a time rich with romantic movement ideas, french revolution aftermath, gothicRead MoreMary Shelley s Use Of Point Of View1467 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMichael Ginyard Mrs. Joyner English IV Honors 17 December 2015 Mary ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Use of Point of View Mary Shelley uses point of view in Frankenstein to naturally develop her readerÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions and feelings in regards to her characters. Shelley forms her own Chinese Box structure along with a frame narrative stirred together to give the nature of stories within stories in a completely unique way (Narrative Technique in Frankenstein). When ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s readers interpret Frankenstein, they tend to have
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
It is never too late to quit smoking. Smoking is a habit that many Americans have even into their old age. However, smoking is not a healthy habit it effects your brain, heart, lungs and throat, it can cause cancer, as well as COPD. Not only does smoking lead to chronic diseases, but has many effects on the aging process. In older adults, they see a lower quality of life due to a lifelong of smoking. Although smoking in old age has become less popular, the generation of baby boomers is going to change that statistic and will need services for cessation. It is never too late to quit; the benefits of quitting are almost instant. Smoking has adverse effects no matter how old you are, but in old age it makes the normal aging process muchÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Although the effects smoking has on a personÃ¢â¬â¢s appearance is not a typical health concern, it is an easy way to see the effects smoking can have on the body. Smoking brings many concerns no matter a personÃ¢â¬â¢s ag e. However, for the population of older adults that chooses to smoke, there are more immediate concerns with their health. For many older adults, aging brings with it disease, cognitive loss, and many other issues, but smoking only speed up the symptoms and often makes them worse. Smoking can influence older adultÃ¢â¬â¢s medications; it can complicate a previously diagnosed illness; and smoking can add more health issues on top of already diagnosed diseases. Smoking brings concerns for elderly smokers because it is dangerous to their health, especially for those that have preexisting health conditions like, cancer, cardiovascular disease and others (Center). Smoking in old age will only make disease treatments less effective and unlikely to cure. Although there has been an increased smoking cessation among the elderly, with the baby boomer population aging there is likely to be an increased need for it. The elderly population commonly experiences trouble swallowing food, as well a s experience insomnia, and the older adults will find that smoking will only make these preexisting complications harder. Not only are the effects of smoking a concern, but the otherShow MoreRelatedQuit Smoking For a Better Future Essay608 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesAmerica alone are smoking associated. Smoking reduces the life of an average smoker by 12 years. According to WHO, Smoking is estimated to cause 10 million deaths worldwide per year by 2010. Smoking has many hazardous effects on both smokers and the people around smokers. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s damaging the environment and contributing to the global warming. Being a dentist itÃ¢â¬â¢s my responsibility to discuss the damaging effects of smoking and persuade everyone to quit smoking or to never start smoking. First, let usRead MoreCigarettes in America Essay1450 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesstroke, and chronic respiratory disease. The most deadly origin of disease is cigarette smoking. A cigarette contains many harmful chemicals that damage the smokersÃ¢â¬â¢ body as well as the people that surround the smoker. Its negative impacts regarding health carry more burdens than what some may say is the Ã¢â¬Å"positiveÃ¢â¬ social outcome of smoking. Tobacco was originally used as a heavy sedative during tribal times and never used as a form of leisure. Cigarettes should be made illegal in the United States becauseRead MoreChildren s Awareness Of Youth Smoking969 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesawareness of youth smoking. American Lung Association tries to inform parents and children about the risk smoking has to our bodies, (Ã¢â¬Å"Our MissionÃ¢â¬ ). To dramatically improve the health of the youth, many organizations come together to inform the youth of the effects smoking has on them. Drug Abuse Resistance Education, is a program that elementary students take part to learn about good decision-making skills, (Ã¢â¬Å"MissionÃ¢â¬ ). This program teaches children about the dangers of smoking and other illegalRead MoreEssay about Designated Smoking Areas Needed for College Campus1209 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesunsafe streets surrounding the campus. Although smokers choose an unsafe habit, it is their right to do so in a safe area. It is the collegeÃ¢â¬â¢s duty to provide this safe place. It is estimated that 28.5 % of college students are smokers (uri.edu). There has been an increase in colleges and other corporations to have smoking bans, it is their belief that faculty and students will quit smoking. The main cause of doing away with smoking on campus is also to provide a place where second hand smoke is notRead MoreShould Smoking Be A Rule?1652 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Trying different things with smoking as a rule happens in the early adolescent years, often times in high school were students like me, often succumb to the peer pressure. This is often driven transcendently by psychosocial thought process. For me, as a Ã¢â¬Å"beginnerÃ¢â¬ in high school, smoking cigaretteÃ¢â¬â¢s was a typical demonstration of passing on a message, that I was no longer a child. Yet, I also think that I was trying to Ã¢â¬Å"fit inÃ¢â¬ to what I perceived to be a Ã¢â¬Å"cool kid.Ã¢â¬ I was essentially tryingRead MoreMy Story About Quitting Smoking Essay1487 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMy Story about Quitting Smoking Ã¢â¬Å"Smoking will affect our health, regardless of how many cigarettes we smokeÃ¢â¬ I was a smoker for 13 years. I the first cigarette at the age of 17, during a stressful summer night, stopping at a corner shop, after getting off the difficult high school/technical school I attended, and graduated from (It was an institution of morning and evening attendance in order to obtain highschool diploma with a technical career). My first cigarette was not to my liking, as thisRead MoreInterview : Interview And Observation1348 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespossibly leading to an interview. I picked from close friends and family. The survey questions were: Do you smoke cigarettes? How long have you smoked? How often do you smoke? Do you consider yourself addicted or a social smoker? Would you like to quit? Have you ever tried? If yes, what happened? My first interviewee was a male 40 years of age who admitted to being a smoker of cigarettes since age 16 but didnÃ¢â¬â¢t become addicted until age 18. He stated he smokes 15 times a day. He stated he smokesRead MoreYou CanT Turn Back The Hands Of Time, But You Can Easily829 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesYou can t turn back the hands of time, but you can easily make amends by forming good health habits today. Larraine Sathicq shows us how. Physical inactivity If you hate the idea of exercise, you re at risk of so much more than getting fat, says exercise physiologist Dr Adam Fraser. There s a lot of research that highlights the impact of physical activity on chronic diseases, quality of life, longevity and even brain function, he explains. VIEW GALLERY: Ageing celebrity hands The good news:Read MoreBanning Cigarettes Should Be Made Illegal1027 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDeadliest Addiction Every year, cigarette smoking kills more than 480,000 Americans, with more than 41,000 of these deaths from exposure to secondhand smoke1. With the United States constantly passing new laws to protect us, you would imagine that with this huge statistic, banning cigarette sales and distribution would be a main priority. Not only is the person smoking harming themselves, but people are also getting cancer from second hand smoke when theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve never picked up a cigarette in their livesRead MoreAddiction : A Deep Word859 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages(such as a drug) or do something (such as gamble) and an unusually great interest in something or a need to do or have something.Ã¢â¬ . Addiction is well defined but when we think of the word addiction, we often think of images of alcoholism, drugs, and smoking. However, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a wide of variety of addictions that comprises of internet, pornography, gambling, shopping, food and even more. Sometimes the word is misunderstood for an obs ession and most of the time we label a personÃ¢â¬â¢s hobbies an obsession.
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about theStrategic Analysis of Myer. Answer: Introduction Myer is a retail group that was started by a Russian immigrant, Sydney Myer, together with his brother, Elcon Myer in Bendigo, 1900. In 1914, Myer built the largest chain of departmental store in Melbourne, which is currently the CBD store of the organization. The ownership has changed over time after the death of its founder, Sydney Myer. Myer has grown due to the continuous development of new stores across the Six Australian states. It has also acquired other departmental stores such as Grace Bros in 1983, Boans Ltd, Western stores in South Wales and Farmers Co. Myer Emporium merged with GJ Coles Coy to form Coles Myer, which was later sold in 2006 (Myer, 2017). The main products include womens, mens, and childrens wear, beauty fragrance and cosmetics, home wares, electrical goods, intimate apparel, toys, footwear, handbags and accessories and general merchandise. The new owners of Myer include; TPG/New Bridge, the Myer family and the Myer current management team, where Richard U mbers is the CEO. It became a private ownership after divesting from Coles Myer. The mission of Myer is to provide customers and the community at large with the highest standard of service and ensure that they consistently meet and exceed customers shopping expectations. Their vision entails becoming an international-class retail business aimed at inspiring everyone. It focuses on style and fashion by providing quality products, friendly services and additional benefits such as MYER One Loyalty Program. As per 2016 annual reports of the retail group, Myer recorded revenue of $3.3billion, operating income of $113.5billion and net income $60.5billion (IBISWorld, 2017). They have approximately over 12500 employees, along with 1200 suppliers and 54000 shareholders. It has 67 stores located across Australia. Their main competitors include David Jones, Harris Scarfe, Kmart Australia, and Target Australia. Major markets are New South Wales, Queensland, and Queensland. Macro-Environment Analysis using PESTEL Analytical Framework Political Factors Political stability in the region encourages more investors and suppliers to carry out business, thus, recording high rates of return and low risks of business failure (Bill, 2011). The government focus on expanding international trade provides an excellent opportunity to retailers to get suppliers and customers from across the world using E-retailing (ASX Media Release, 2016). The chairman of Myer has highlighted (during the released of the annual report) political factors that affect Myer. One of which is the uncertainty of political level, such as new taxes and charges (carbon tax and flood levy) would affect consumer spending, thus lowering revenue of the firm. Other concerns such as loopholes in goods service tax (GST) legislation and the new setup of the industrial relations, would negatively impact the performance of Myer. Economic Factors Fluctuation of the Australian dollar and global economy weaknesses adversely affect the sales growth of the retail industry. Economic factors such as falling house prices, high oil prices, low rate of saving and the decreasing GDP negatively affect the consumer confidence and spending patterns (Barney and Hesterly, 2008). However, the decrease in the unemployment and inflation rates, positively influence the success of the retail business. Socio-Cultural Factors The increased preference for high-quality products among the Australians provides a greater opportunity for retailers like Myer to focus on customer satisfaction to gain a competitive advantage (Glynis, 2015). The population is culturally diverse, and therefore the retail industry should manage diversity through the provision of a wide range of products to meet the needs and expectations of the customers. Technological Factors International competitiveness of Australian retail industry is as a result of the use of the internet and e-retailing (Sharrieff, 2012). The new communication technologies accelerate expansion into new foreign markets globally. The fiber optic, mobile network and satellite coverage have led to connections with various activities thus improving efficiency (Myer, 2014). The Federal Government has established policies that help inventors commercialize and protect their new entrepreneurial ideas. Legal Factors Taxation policies and employee regulation have been affecting the industry. Laws such as compliance with disclosure requirements, health and safety regulations, and consumer protection influence the retail business either positively or negatively. When opening new stores, the concerned government should approve so as to control illegal activities in Australia (Hanson et al., 2008). Environmental/ Ecological Factors Australia is a dry continent with least amount of water and human activities affect the marine environments. Selecting an environment that is conducive to targeted customers is a great challenge to Myer retail store. Climate changes, private and public environmental programs are factors that affect the industry. Recycling of waste products improves business sustainability in the retail sector (BNET Business Directory, 2007). In conclusion, using the PESTEL analysis, the following opportunities are available to Myer; increased disposable income, expanded international trade agreements, increased preference for high-quality products by customers, automation in business and use of knowledge management systems (Gillespie, 2007). Besides, mobile technology and information security regulation aid in formulating effective strategies. The threats include; unpredictable government spending increased the cost of capital, economic recessions, new taxes and charges, online disruptions and rose in the wealth gap. Industry Analysis using Porters Five Forces Threats of New Entrants This risk is high in the retail industry due to its promising nature and the large population which increases demand. There are a decreased number of retailers who are independent because of the competition. It is not easy for the small-scale retailers to enter the market because large companies, such as Myer, enjoy economies of scale (ASX Media Release, 2016). The industry turnover is high therefore it attracts more competitors. The increased customer loyalty to specific brands like those of Myer is also a threat to new entrants. Threat of Substitutes-High The threat of substitute products is high. Several companies offer a variety of trendy and fashionable products, therefore increasing the availability of substitute products. They focus on both national and home brands and offer low prices to the substitute products (ASX Media Release, 2012). Increased use of new technologies leads to innovation of substitutes with greater quality and performance. Product differentiation by Myer Company can be its best strategy to maintain its competitive advantage. Bargaining Power of Suppliers This force is low in the retail industry. For the vendors to compete, they have to decrease costs of the firms and improve product quality. Myer, being a large retailer, focuses on improving efficiency and reducing overall costs (Eli, 2008). Such strategy lowers the bargaining power of suppliers. Besides, the presence of wide range of substitute inputs and a higher concentration of vendors significantly impact their bargaining power. Bargaining Power of Customers Buyers bargain for quality products and services at low costs. There are no switching costs that customers can incur when they want to move to other retailing company if they dont get the styles and fashions in a particular shopping or retail mall (ASX Media Release, 2012). Although there is an increased number of existing and potential in the industry, departmental stores such as Myer cannot raise prices since the firm concentration is high and therefore, customers can switch to other alternatives. If Myer offers unique products, then it can gain a competitive advantage. Industry Rivalry Most of the departmental stores in the retail industry are almost equally balanced like Myer and its main competitor, David Jones (Lynch, 2014). They use competitive pricing policies to show customers that they offer high-quality products. Product differentiation is difficult. Thus, imitation is not easy. Competitive rivalry is high as the retailers want to have a full market share. The acquisitions and merging is a trend that focuses on increasing the competitiveness of the stores in the industry. Based on the Porters Five Forces Model, we can draw the following conclusion. In the retail industry, the barriers to entry into the market are high; the consumer bargaining power is moderate because of the concentration of major retailers in the region (Porter, 2008). Internal Analysis to Identify Resources and Competencies of Myer VRIO Framework Prime and strategic locations; Myer has located all its stores in high traffic places across the Australian states which give them an opportunity to have more potential customers. They have brand recognition both domestic and internationally. It has achieved such brand equity through merchandising and licensing its overall products (ASX and Media Releases, 2015). The aesthetic appeal of the departmental store; Myer has repositioned its stores to appeal to customers, thus creating an excellent customer experience, improved profitability, and a high competitive advantage. The large size and continental presence enable Myer to enjoy large economies of scale and low costs of inputs from suppliers. Customer loyalty based programs, such as Myer One, Myer Visa Card (Zappone, 2012) and Myer gift card (Simon, 2007) increases the frequency of customer loyalty holders to shop in the stores. They have maintained a good corporate social responsibility by building goodwill and taking better initiatives that enhance the communitys well-being. They are strategic capabilities because almost all of them are valuable as they allow Myer to exploit opportunities and reduce threats to the macro environment fully. The resources and competencies are rare as few competitors possess them. They are also costly to imitate by other firms, especially small-scale retailers. Lastly, they are non-substitutable as there are no strategic equivalents in the industry (Hunger Wheelan, 2007). Conclusion In summary, strategic analysis of the Myer departmental stores leads to the identification of key opportunities and threats and also determining its competitiveness in the retail industry. The clothing and cosmetic products of Myer have recorded satisfactory performance over the years, and therefore they should improve on their marketing strategies by targeting global presence and adequate use of the areas in the showrooms. Also, tying up with foreign players and exploring innovative promotional strategies. References ASX Media Release, (2016)Myer Holdings Limited 2016 Annual Report and Notice of Annual General Meeting (online) Retrieved on 13 February 2017 https://investor.myer.com.au/FormBuilder/_Resource/_module/dGngnzELxUikQxL5gb1cgA/file/Myer_Annual_Report_2016.pdf ASX and Media Releases, (2015) Myer Holdings Limited 2015 Annual Report and Notice of Annual General Meeting (online) Retrieved on 13 February 2017 https://www.annualreports.com/HostedData/AnnualReports/PDF/ASX_MYR_2015.pdf ASX Media Release (2012) Myer Full Year Results ending28 July 2012 (online) Retrieved on 15 February 2017 https://investor.myer.com.au/FormBuilder/_Resource/_module/dGngnzELxUikQxL5gb1cgA/file/Myer_Full_Year_Results_(FY2012)_Release_and_Presentation.pdf Barney, B., and Hesterly, S., (2008) Strategic Management and Competitive Advantage: VRIO Internal Analysis Evaluating a firms internal capabilities: 2nd Edition. P. 72-107. Bill S. (2011). Economic Structure and Performance of the Australian Retail Industry; Productivity commission inquiry report. https://www.pc.gov.au/inquiries/completed/retail-industry/report/retail-industry.pdf BNET Business Directory (2007). Strategic Analysis (online) Accessed on 24 February 2017 https://www.cimaglobal.com/Documents/ImportedDocuments/cid_tg_strategic_analysis_tools_nov07.pdf.pdf Eli G., (2008). Australian Financial Review "Myer sees slow spending recovery" Retrieved on 22nd Feb 2017 from https://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-201948275.html Gillespie, A. (2007). Foundations of Economics: PESTEL analysis of the macro-environment Oxford University Press, Retrieved on 24th Feb 2017 from https://www.kantakji.com/media/1610/ty3.pdf Glynis T. (2015). The Australian Business Review. Myers brands new retail strategy to tackle rivals (online) Accessed on 15 Feb 17 https://www.theaustralian.com.au/business/companies/myers-brands-new-retail-strategy-to-tackle-rivals/news-story/17f723bbf84ed73d3d0292e8f375d329 Hanson, D., Dowling, P. J., Hitt, M. A., Ireland, R. D. and Hoskisson, R. E. (2008). Strategic Management: Competitiveness Globalization. The Internal and External environment Analysis; (book) 3rd Ed. South Melbourne, Vic.: Thomson Learning Australia. Innovation and Technology: Australia. P. 45-120. Hunger, J. D., Wheelan, T. L. (2007). Strategic Management and Business Policy: Environmental scanning and industry analysis (book) 13th edition Pearson Education, Prentice hall p. 94-136. IBISWorld, (2017). Departmental stores in Australia, Market research report. Retrieved on 24th Feb 2017 from https://www.ibisworld.com.au/industry/department-stores.html Lynch, J. (2014) Myer and David Jones Merger: cautious approval but doubts remain" (online) Accessed on 20 Feb 17 https://www.smh.com.au/business/myer-and-david-jones-merger-cautious-approval-but doubts-remain-20140203-31wb9.html Myer Media Release (2014), New season lifestyle collections at Myer https://www.myer.com.au/resources/7bb661d0-4d1d-44bc-a295-27a4ffde0ebb/2014_new_brands_for_the_home_fv.pdf Myers (2017)Company Information (online) Accessed on 12 Feb 17 https://www.myer.com.au/p/about-myer/the-company/about-us/ Porter, M. E. (2008) "The Five Competitive Forces That Shape Strategy."Special Issue on HBS Centennial:Harvard Business Review, P. 7893. https://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Pages/item.aspx?num=34522 Sharrieff, M. (2012). How to write a strategic analysis for business organizations online accessed: 22nd Feb 2017. https://smallbusiness.chron.com/write-strategic-analysis-business-organizations-89.html Simon E. (2007). Australian Financial Review."Myer uses Visa card to generate loyalty" retrieved from https://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-171092628.html Zappone, C. (2012) Myers Inks Card Deal as Battle for Shoppers Heats Up (online) Accessed on 20 Feb 17 https://www.smh.com.au/business/myer-inks-card-deal-as-battle-for-shoppers-heats-up-20121102-28o6r.html
Monday, April 13, 2020
Tell Tale Heart TRUE!---- nervous---very,--- very dreadfully nervous I had been -- and am; but why will you say that I am mad? The disease had sharpened my senses- not destroyed - not dulled them. Above all was the sense of hearing acute. I heard all things in heaven and on earth. I heard many things below the earth. How, then am I mad? Harken! and observe how healthily, how calmly I can tell you the whole story. It is impossible to say how first the idea entered my brain; but once conceived, it haunted me day --and night. Object---- there was none. Passion-------there was none. I loved the old man. He had never wronged me. He had never given me insult. For his gold I had no desire. I think-----it was--------his eye. Yes! it was this! One of his eyes resembled that of a vulture.-----a pale blue eye------with a film over it. Whenever it fell upon me, my blood ran cold. And so, by degrees------very gradually---I made up my min to take the life of the old man, and thus rid myself of that eye-------forever. Now this is the point. You fancy me Mad. Madmen know nothing! But you should have seen me! You should seen me. You should have seen how wisely I proceeded-----with what Caution---with what foresight---with what dissimulation I went to work. I was never kinder to the old man than during that the whole week before I killed him. And every night-----About midnight----I turned the latch of his door and opened it---Oh so gently. And then, when I had made an opening sufficient for my head, I put in a dark lantern, all closed, closed, so that no light shone out, and then I thrust in my head. Oh, you would have laughed to see how cunningly I thrust it in! I moved it slowly-very, very slowly, so that I might not disturb the old man's sleep. It took me an hour to place my whole head within the opening so far that I could see him as he lay upon his bed. Ha!-would a madman have been so wise as this? And then, when my head was well in the room, I undid the lantern cautiously-oh, so cautiously - for the hinges creaked. I undid it just so much that a single thin ray fell upon the vulture eye. And this I did for seven long nights-every night just at midnight-but I found the eye always closed; and so it was impossible to do the work; for it was not the old man who vexed me, but his Evil Eye. And every morning, when the day broke, I went boldly into the chamber, and spoke courageously to him calling him by name in a hearty tone, and inquiring how he had passed the night. So you see he would have been a very profound old man, indeed, to suspect that every night, just at twelve, I looked in upon him while he slept. Upon the eighth night I was more than usually cautious in opening the door. A watch's minute-hand moves more quickly than did mine. Never before that night had I felt the extent of my own powers-of my sagacity. I could scarcely contain my feelings of triumph. To think that there I was, opening the door, little by little, and he not even to dream of my secret deeds or thoughts. I fairly chuckled at the idea; and perhaps the heard me; for he moved on the bed suddenly, as if startled. Now you may think that I drew back-but no. His room was as black as pitch with the thick darkness, and so I know that he could not see the opening of the door, and I kept pushing it on steadily, steadily. I had my head in, and was about to open the lantern, when my thumb slipped upon the tin fastening, and the old man spring up in the bed, crying out-?Who's there? I kept quite still and said nothing. For a whole hour I did not move a muscle and in the meantime I did not hear him lie down. He was still sitting up in the bed, listening: just as I have done, night after night, hearkening to the death-watches in the wall. Presently I heard a slight groan, and I knew it was the groan of mortal terror. It was not a groan of pain or grief-oh,-no!-it was the low stifled
Wednesday, March 11, 2020
Analysis of Employee Benefits within an Organisation Introduction Analysis of Employee Benefits within an Organisation Introduction Types of Employee Benefits2.1 Disadvantages of employee benefits2.2 Advantage of employee benefitsÃ Compensation Management Influence Over Employees and CompaniesConclusions References BibliographyÃ Related Introduction The purpose of this essay is to open the discussion about one of the most relevant features for the human beings these days, the payment schemes such as salaries, wages and benefits that employees receive in retribution of their work. On this paper work it will be developed the next question Ã¢â¬Å"If employees undervalue the cost of benefits, why should a company not drop benefits and simply add more direct compensation?Ã¢â¬ On first instance, is precisely to say that the direct compensation is the monetary benefits that employees receive in return of the service they provide to the company, such as basic salary, rent allowance, travel allowances and medical reimbursements among others; on the other hand indirect compensation is the non monetary benefits that the employees receive such as life insurance, health security, pension, vacations and flexible timings among others. Thus, the payment programs have become one of the most important issues on the human life nowadays, thatÃ ´s because they define the opportunities and choices that one person has to provide wellness, security and a future to their families or their loved ones, and in the same way feel recognition for their capabilities and efforts. Consequently, there have always been different systems of pay and compensations to suit the employees and employers requirements, for this reason there are wages with non monetary and monetary benefits. Employees typically depend on salaries and wages to get a stable income and on benefits to provide health and security. For employers, compensation decisions influence their cost of doing business and thus, their ability to sell at a competitive price in the goods and/or service markets. Far beyond that, compensation decisions determinate the employers ability to compete for qualified employees in the labour market. (Ferris, et. al, p.528) Employee compensation practices differ across employment units (e.g., organizations, business units, and facilities) on several dimensions. Dimension like Form (cash or benefits), Level (How much do people disserve to earn for their job), Structure (hierarchies and pay differential within an employee unit), Mix (how and when cash compensation is disbursed) and finally Pay Administration (pay policies and who is in charge of that process) (Ferris, et. al, p.528).The central point of the employee compensation discussion has been on defining these dimensions, researching why organizations differ on them, and considering whether such differences have consequences on employee behaviours and attitude; Along this work this topic will be developed deeply and it will be shown examples of how it can vary and how this contribute to the question above. Now then, as it was mentioned before indirect compensation refers to benefits, is essential to understand that this benefits are forms of value (non monetary) that are provided to the employee in return for his/her job. ThatÃ ´s why when it refers to employee benefits the most common are: vacations-holidays, employee stock ownership plans, retirement plans, health insurance, life insurance, disability insurance, pension, leisure bonuses, etc. Benefits are increasingly expensive for businesses to provide to employees, so the range and options of benefits are changing rapidly to include, for example, flexible benefit plans and timings. Despite that some employees undervalue the benefits, itÃ ´s important to say that companies cannot drop benefits that easy because two essential reasons. The first reason is because of the law; the benefits must be given to the employees as part of the remuneration of their job or services, thatÃ ´s legal issue and must be part of the pay policies of the company. The second reason is because employees like parents or elder people prefer benefits as they find them important for their families, their retirement or their pension schemes. Other aspects that companies find important are that the indirect compensation can encourage the employee to do a better job, creates a sense of trust and loyalty between the employee and the employer. This way compensation plays such a key role because it is at the heart of the employment relationship, being of critical importance to both employees and employers; also thatÃ ´s a reason why organizations are becoming more concerned with positioning employee compensation as a strategic human resource management function in order to obtain competitive advantage. Types of Employee Benefits Each country has different forms of salaries, wages and benefits. In the UK, employee benefits are categorised by three terms: Flexible Benefits, Voluntary Benefits and Core Benefits. (Price, 2007, p.467) The first term is Flexible Benefits, also called Flex Scheme, is where employees are allowed to choose how a proportion of their remuneration is paid. This is normally delivered by allowing employees to sacrifice part of their pre-tax pay in exchange for a car, additional holiday, a shorter working week or other similar benefits, or give up benefits for additional cash remuneration. The second is Voluntary Benefits; these are the collection of benefits that employees choose to receive. These tend to be schemes such as the government-backed, Bike2Work and Childcare Vouchers (Accor Services, Busybees, Sodexho, KiddiVouchers, Early Years Vouchers Ltd). Employee Discount schemes are often setup by employers as a perk of working at the organization. (www.cipd.co.uk) Finally, Core Benefits is the term given to benefits which all staff enjoys, such as holiday, sick pay and flexible schedule. In recent years, many UK companies have used the tax and national insurance savings gained through the implementation of salary sacrifice system, to fund the implementation of flexible benefits. In a salary sacrifice arrangement, an employee gives up the right to part of the cash remuneration due under their contract of employment. Usually, the sacrifice is made in return for the employers agreement to provide them with some form of non-cash benefit. The most popular types of salary sacrifice benefits include childcare vouchers and pensions, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s a reason why indirect compensation still being important for some workers like those who are parents or those who are close to retirement. 2.1 Disadvantages of employee benefits In the UK these benefits are often taxed at the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s normal tax rate,which can be expensive if there is no financial advantage to the individual from the benefit. The UK system of state pension provision is dependent upon the payment of National Insurance Contributions NIC. Salary exchange schemes will result in reduced NIC payments and so are also liable to reduce the state benefits, most notably the state second pension. (www.cipd.co.uk) 2.2 Advantage of employee benefitsÃ The benefits are an important component of a companys remuneration package for attracting and retaining its employees. The benefits serve as incentives to the employees and encourage them to work hard for the organisation, instead of give up part of their salaries. These also help in building up job satisfaction. In the same way, there can be advantages for employers; one of the major advantages is an easing of their own cash flow. Another advantage is the option to negotiate discounts with benefit providers, this could represent savings for the company when the personnel is large, so the provision of non cash benefits can consequently be cheaper than the part of the salary that the employee is giving up. Some benefits are attractive even for young workers such as a company car or mobile phones, which can be provided by the employer and without having to make these arrangements by the employee. On the other hand, tax advantages are extended to employees as well as employers. Some benefits package provides a tax advantage; for example, if the employer pays for the mobile phone, this is treated as a non-taxable benefit, so this can represent a significant tax saving over the course of a year, for both parts. Compensation Management Influence Over Employees and Companies (Example 1) On this case, AVIVA an insurance company has proposed closing its final-salary pension scheme, because is considered inequitable and unsustainable. On this case, the reason of the closure of the final-salary pension was because it took two-thirds of Avivas contributions to UK staff pension arrangements, but only one-third of UK staff had the final-salary benefit. This proposal come after a string of businesses announced their intentions to close final-salary schemes to current members. Construction firm Taylor Wimpey, Trinity Mirror, Pirelli, Fujitsu, Barclays, Morrisons, Vodafone, BMI, Dairy Crest, IBM and Costain all said they planned to do so in the last year. (http://news.bbc.co.uk/) Now this could be a problem, as it means the typical worker will lose a third of expected pension payments, but also it can proved the high costs of indirect compensation for organizations. On the other hand, incentives and motivation programs can reduce the cost of the benefits expenses for the companies; on the following two examples it can be proved. (Example 2) The company name is Rim Hospitality, which is a hotel, resort and boutique property management company. With rising workers compensation expenses, Rim Hospitality needed to find a cost effective solution that would motivate employees to help reduce these costs, and also maximize efficiencies with employee productivity and scheduling. The plan developed by this company consisted in implementing a prepaid MasterCard card as the award to the employees, which provided the employee the freedom to choose what they want, when they want it. With this plan, Rim Hospitality experienced positive results almost immediately which have steadily increased. Thus, over two years, they reduced workers compensation claims by 29% and therefore this meant more productivity to compensate the cost of benefits and savings of $634,000 during that time. (www.hrmreport.com) (Example 3) There is another case where incentives and motivation programs can reduce the cost of the benefits expenses. This example is referred to Pepsi Bottling Group (PBG) which is the worlds largest manufacturer, seller and distributor of Pepsi-Cola beverages. In 2005, PBG was working on a better way to manage the rising cost of health care for its employees. They did that by educating their employees on various health related issues. First of all, PBG implemented an employee survey to get feedback on the interest of their employees. Thus, all the employees who had participated in the survey were rewarded with a prepaid card as an incentive; following the survey period, employees were offered a variety of healthcare educational classes to attend. When the class was completed, the employee received an additional prepaid Card as a reward for completing the class. Time after the implementation of that program, PBG has noticed that expenses generated by health disease, absence, emot ional conflicts, and health insurance costs were lowered in 47%. (www.hrmreport.com)Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Now then, sometimes a bad healthcare can drive up the cost of the benefits for employees and employers. (Example 4) Similar to the previous, this example shows that according to the U.S. Bureau of Labour Statistics, as of 2009, trucking had an injury rate 30 percent higher than other U.S. industries. This coupled with higher average medical and indemnity costs, makes employer costs will go higher; therefore this will lead to higher workers compensation costs and any savings employers thought they were accruing will be lost when injuries go up. So, the higher rates can be attributed in part to several factors. Because of the nature of their work many drivers are out of shape, eat badly, smoke too much, dont do exercise and hardly ever get enough sleep. As a result of this, they found themselves susceptible to heart attacks and diabetes, as well as a myriad of strains, sprains and various other muscular-skeletal injuries. This makes truckers a danger on the road but also a danger to themselves, and by the way driving up employers costs. (http://web.ebscohost.com) (Example 5) Sometimes working in a non traditional way like working from home is a benefit that workers value, especially if they have families. This example shows that an AIM survey made in 2006, indicated that 40% of companies in Massachusetts were looking at ways to decrease the compensation budget, which meant that workers wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have been happy with that news, for that reason employers found the way to offset the dissatisfaction that will cause. They proposed to give flexible hours of work, telecommuting, and other lifestyle benefits; but perhaps, one of the most important benefits was the opportunity to work from home or 50/50 (half in the office and half in home), that was a differential factor and was used even as a recruiting tool. (http://web.ebscohost.com) That is an important benefit that more and more companies have put in practice, because they can trust and rely on people, this is a management new thinking and change of attitude, where people find that they work hard when no one is looking at them, that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t need a supervisor all the time or someone just watching if theyre working. This aspect was very important for families and parents who wanted to expend more time with their sons and relatives. (Example 6) Another option growing in popularity is flexible time and banks system, which consist on time off available to use at any time, instead of the typical, two weeks of vacation, five sick day permission, and 10 holidays. That way, employers are not asking to the workers if are they sick today, or if do they want the day off; because with the banks system and flexible times they can make some long weekends or take some time off in the middle of the week. That type of flexibility is definitely attractive to employees. (www.businesswest.com) By a short break, it has been found that the cost of the benefits could be a high risk when the PESTE factors (Political, Economical, Social, Technological and environmental) affect the organization. (Example 7) In Colombia for example, in the nineties when the government decided to open his economy to the neo liberal model of free trade and the invisible hand of Smith that in theory regulates the economy and the prices of buy and sale, a lot of Organizations in the textile industry suffered the consequences of that Governmental policy. There was a specific company that went to bankrupt in a short time after the economic opened, that company was Coltejer who had been one of the biggest companies in the textile industry in Colombia; the reason is that this company gave good benefits to their employees which made this one of the top organizations in where people desired to work, the benefits ranging from computers and household facilities provided by the company to cars that employees could acquire after have worked for some years in the company. So basically, when the Chinese and East Asia products got in the Colombian market, Coltejer could not compete with the bargaining and cheap prices of those products, that because of the high costs of benefits that Coltejer was holding with their employees, among other reasons, and the company could not bear and overcome the price difference, despite the fact that external products were low in quality; so in this case it can be seen that high costs of benefits could provide go od talents and satisfied employees, but also could be a high risk option for the organization if an external factor affect the business. (Example 8) In the same way in Chile, the shoes industry was affected by the PESTE factors; it was basically after signing the free trade agreement with China 4 years ago, and as a result of the undefeatable prices of Chinese shoes companies, many companies in Chile had to reduce staff and reduce both compensations direct and indirect, which brought turbulence and imbalance to the companies. (www.economiaynegocios.cl/) (Example 9) Although, external factors could be positive in a medium term perspective, like natural resources prices, especially the petroleum high prices; where in countries like Venezuela usually bring big wealthy to the people, such is the case of PDVSA, the Petroleum Public Company of Venezuela, which is one of the biggest companies in the petroleum industry over the world, and because the petroleum bonanza and the high prices of the barrel make that PDVSA could give spectacular and expensive benefits to their employees, such as car, housing, vacations, education (sons of PDVSA employees receive education allowances and scholarships to study abroad, and free education in Venezuela). So this shows the magnitude and the impact of the benefits on the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s life and in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s costs. (www.pdvsa.com) (Example 10) A survey made by Personnel Today found that, in half of 700 organisations who responded to the survey, take-up of childcare vouchers was less than 6%, and only 9% of organisations reported more than 30% staff take-up of the vouchers. So it means that poor communication of the benefits of the schemes is the result of the low take-up. However, the survey shows that there is growing awareness of the existence of childcare voucher schemes, which enable employers to offer working parents vouchers to pay for registered childcare without having to pay tax or National Insurance contributions. Most organisations (81%) said staff awareness of childcare vouchers had increased over the last five years, and that offering childcare vouchers could be a deciding factor in attracting working parents and retaining key staff. The final conclusion of the survey applied to the organizations, shown that 91% either agreeing or strongly agreeing that offering childcare vouchers improved an empl oyers reputation. The research also looked into employer interest in offering a similar scheme for staff that needed to look after elderly dependants and the results shown that 59% were interested in introducing them. (www.personneltoday.com) (Example 11) As it has been said along this work, good benefits are useful to attract and retain qualified staff for a company, now then, it also help the company to save money. ThatÃ ´s because attractive benefits facilitate a companys bottom line on multiple levels, and one that shouldnt be ignored is the cost of replacing employees who become dissatisfied and leave. The cost to replace an employee can be anywhere from 30% to 40% of somebodys salary up to 150%, and is money that the employer is going to spend on recruiting and retraining. (web.ebscohost.com) (Example 12) On this order, employers might offer workers a motivating and attractive package that says, if you stay with me five years or 10 years, at the end of that time, Ill give you a raise that might be equal to 50% of the base salary. Because its on an individual basis, the employer cannot take a tax deduction for what he is spending, but if the employee got skills and talents that the organization needs to his optimal productivity, it would be more important to tie the employee to the organization for 5 or 10 years. That arrangement appeals to people at certain stages of life. For example, someone with two children is going to be staring to college costs in a little less than a decade. By offering to double his starting salary after 5 years, the employer can bring a little financial-planning reassurance to the worker, while not having to worry about losing the assets he brings to the company. Employees nearing retirement age might also find value in such an offer. (web.ebscoh ost.com) (Example 13) This is the case of Unisys (IT Services Company) which has had a flexible benefits scheme for 13 years. This has changed a lot over that time to reflect staff interests, and is split into three categories security, wellbeing and lifestyle. Unisys workers average salary is about Ã £50,000. Andrew White, reward manager, says We found high interest in security-type benefits rather than lifestyle, so tried to tailor as many as we can in the insurance sector. Security benefits include critical illness insurance, travel insurance and group income protection. The most popular benefits are critical illness, dental insurance, holiday-trading and income protection. (http://proquest.umi.com) (Example 14) In the case of retail giant Tesco, who offers its employees a wide selection of benefits, including a defined benefit (DB) pension scheme that is open to all staff, three all-employee share schemes, life assurance, childcare vouchers and discounts at theme parks. Tesco also offers all its employees a discount card (the Privilege card), which gives a 10% discount on shopping in all Tesco stores and online. Staff can save a maximum of Ã £730 a year. Staff feedback shows the Privilege card is top of the list of most valued benefits. The reason the Privilege card is so popular is because staff get immediate benefit from it, they get money off their shopping receipt. (http://proquest.umi.com) On the other hand, voluntary benefits include a staff tariff on the Tesco Mobile network and discounts at Tesco Bank. Each pay period, Tesco includes a new offer, for example extra deals on clothing, home ware or photo processing. With nearly 290,000 UK staff and from different nationalities, Tesco has a wide range of needs to consider. (Example 15) Telegraph Media Group is an organization who gives to their employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ wide range of benefits, and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s the cause of why more than 80% of the employees have declared to be satisfied with benefits. One of Telegraphs most popular benefits is the pension scheme, where the company pays a lot into that and employees donÃ¢â¬â¢t get charged for administration. In the same way there is a good website for the pension scheme. This is very important issue for employees therefore in the current situation, because they can save their pensions and donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to worry about the public pot. (http://proquest.umi.com) Another valued issue is the health and wellbeing services provided by Telegraph, such as its on-site gym, free and subsidised fitness classes, free corporate massage service, and on-site doctor with physiotherapy services. All this kind of smart compensation policies ease the life of the employees and also the productivity and work environment of the company. (Example 16) Another example is the one about the Oil and Gas Company Subsea 7, who employs 1,800 people in the UK and they consider that is essential to create a clever payment strategy to attract and retain the best people. Considering this the company first introduced tax-efficient perks offered via salary sacrifice arrangements, then built on this with a total reward statement and a flex scheme. To ensure the package is understood and appreciated by staff, it tracks a variety of measurements, including the number who has enrolled on the benefits website, the choices they make, how often they visit the site, and the take-up of different benefits. (http://proquest.umi.com) Conclusions During this essay, it has been tried to demonstrate what is better for both employees and companies in terms of compensation. As it has been shown the compensation could vary depending on the company policies and the HR strategies. As human beings we are looking always for the best choice for us, it must be a choice that satisfy the basic needs one person has and at the same time gave him/her wellbeing, comfort and happiness. In the same way companies are looking for the best way to attract and retain excellent staff, which brings quality, productivity, growth, status, competitiveness and profits to the company. Now then, compensation is just the manner in which the employees get some pay in return of the services they have given to the company. The main question of this essay put a hypothetical situation in which employees undervalue the cost of the benefits, and the company has to decide whether remove the benefits and add more direct compensation, which would means add more monetary value, more basic salary or just more allowances; now then, as it has been shown before, the needs of each employee differs depending on the age, personal aims, family type, lifestyle, culture, religion and even education level. So itÃ¢â¬â¢s essential that the employer knows perfectly well the characteristics and the staff behaviour, in order to offer the best compensation package for each group of workers, and also to save money and gain productivity and competitiveness. As it has been mentioned before, the company could gain productivity and competitiveness just by offering to their employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ nice conditions, because the worker who feels that the company really care about him and give to him everything he needs could work the double in the half of time, giving better results and being committed with the business, so thatÃ¢â¬â¢s how an employer can create loyal and good workers. On the other hand, when companies chose the right compensation packages for their employees, they will be saving money and the reason is because on one side they wonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste money in benefits that employees donÃ¢â¬â¢t like or undervalue or even they are not going to use, and on the other side the save money because if they keep the employees satisfied they wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be need to spend money on recruiting and training new staff. So, my answer to the main question is that, employers have to do everything necessary to keep employees satisfied, as they are the gears of the machine, so if in this case or in one specific company the employees undervalue the benefits and prefer more direct compensation, I must say that on first instance a general check in of the compensation program must be done, so it means to check the different dimension of payment such as form, level, structure, mix and the pay policies of the company. Is necessary to know that some benefits cannot be removed, as they must be given as a legal issue (e.g. social security or pensions), other flexible benefits could be removed or added according the characteristic of the employee, because I canÃ¢â¬â¢t offer a 25 years old person, whose marital status is single a childcare voucher or long term plans benefits, may be this person could be more attracted with travel allowances, or just have more cash to spend on leisure activities; on the other sid e a mother with little kids should be more interested in flexible timings, work from home, health care insurance and vacations, and in the same way an old person is probably thinking in pension schemes. Now then, for the company instead, the fact of add more direct compensation could represent a more complicated manage of the cash flow and at the same time could be more expensive, as employees are not giving up part of their salaries in exchange of the benefits, and some companies usually negotiate discounts with some benefit providers, instead it cannot be done with the employees salary; in addition, with indirect compensation employers get tax advantages, that could be relevant throughout of the year. In conclusion, if the employer adds more direct compensation he could lose money, because he wonÃ¢â¬â¢t have tax advantages, there wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be salary sacrifice system so there wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be possibility to negotiate with benefit providers and as a result it will be also more complicated to manage the cash flow without those benefits. Now on the other hand, if the employees are not completely satisfied with the indirect compensation, it will mean that the work environment could be affected and as a result the productivity, competitiveness and loyalty of the staff which in a medium term could be expensive for the company. So itÃ¢â¬â¢s a complex situation, which IÃ¢â¬â¢m agree in part, because it require a smart strategy that permit the employer hold indirect compensation in order to benefit the company wealth, assets and resources, but at the same time is necessary offer good perks to employees in order to create incentives and wellbeing among them and thus boost each employ ee to get the best of them. References Books: Ferris, Gerald R., Rosen, Sherman D. And Barnum, Darold T. Handbook of Human Resources Management. (1995) Blackwell Publishers, first ed., Oxford,Ã pp. 528-570 Price, Alan. Human Resource Management in a Business Context. (2007) Cengage learning EMEA, third ed., London, p. 467-488. 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Monday, February 24, 2020
Why Teachers Deserve a Better Pay - Essay Example A question of budget cut TeacherÃ¢â¬â¢s pay freeze is right for times, read the Star TribuneÃ¢â¬â¢s Jan.22, 2011 editorial (Editorial, Star Tribune, 2011). Well, it is not a right time and it will never ever find a right time. The facts are clear, the US economy is still reeling from the woes of an economic recession and grappling with a $6.2 billion budget deficit (Editorial, Star Tribune, 2011). Consequently, there is diminishing subsidy to the whole US educational system , which leave school districtÃ¢â¬â¢s no better option than either to freeze the salary of public school teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s or to distribute another round of pink slips amongst public school teachers. It is unfortunate that a salary freeze is proposed by no less than Sen. Thompson, Representative of ,Lakeville and were favoured by school superintendentÃ¢â¬â¢s. The group favouring a salary freeze argues that the current compensation system which provides an automatic salary increase to teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s who hav e been in service for a number of years and have taken additional college credits is the culprit for their school districts Ã¢â¬ËoverspendingÃ¢â¬â¢ on salaries ( Editorial, Star Tribune, 2011).This is absurd and totally unjust. T... The real question at hand is why canÃ¢â¬â¢t the local and national government increase the funding on education? Why does the teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s and the students have to shoulder for the budget deficit that they did not create in the first place? It is unjust to ask the teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s to carry the burden of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economic problems for the so called greater good. When big and private businesses fold up in the face of recession, government readily bails them out of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s taxes and tells us that if itÃ¢â¬â¢s not bailed out, the economy would further shrink into recession and crisis. Education is a basic social service that government need to put its priority funding, why canÃ¢â¬â¢t the lawmakers shells out some more budget for the education. I believe these whole debate on teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s pay is a mere ploy to cover the real issue of budget cut which is unjust and uncalled for. Salary Freeze is not good for recession A better option for an economy sufferi ng from a recession is a salary increase not a salary freeze and much more not a salary cut and laying off of teachers. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know why the lawmakers are finding it hard to comprehend that people need to spend more , so the economy would keep on moving. A salary freeze will definitely hinder teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s to get that next travel ticket for a much needed vacation. Salary freeze and cuts may result to teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to pay for their house mortgages which in turn would hurt further the economy. On the other hand, laying off teachers would mean a dramatic decrease in the teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to buy and afford commodities and services, which would further slows down the economy. Salary Freeze ,Cuts and Lay off would hurt the quality of education Salary freeze and cuts creates